Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Introduction to Citing and Referencing

Choosing a referencing style

Creating your references

  • What is a DOI and how do I locate them?

    Some citation styles require or encourage the inclusion of a DOI in your reference entry.

    A DOI® (digital object identifier) is a unique number, that is assigned to identify a journal article, book chapter or data set, and provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. Not all journal articles have DOIs, particularly older journal articles and articles from lesser-known journals. However, more and more articles are now assigned a DOI.

    DOIs usually appear on the first page of the article, or they can appear on the page of the database which has the full text article linked.

    To find out if an article has a DOI, you can use a Metadata search engine like CrossRef


  • Should I add a DOI as well as a URL in my reference?

    Some reference styles require the DOI to be included, so it is best to understand the style requirements.

    Including DOI in your reference list provides a direct and persistent link to the source, unlike URLs, which may expire.

    If you are unable to find a DOI for a source, the URL will be sufficient.

    Note - make sure you choose the right referencing template for DOI or URL links.


Reference management software and tools

Writing with references

Further help