Indigenous knowledge or oral traditions


The APA Manual, 7th edition (p.260) states that the ways in which the Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous people are cited depends on whether, or how they have been recorded.

If the material is not recorded, a variation of the personal communication reference type may be used, describing the source and providing context for its origin.

If the information has been recorded and is recoverable by readers, it should be cited in the text and an  entry in the correct format for the type of source (eg. audio, video, book, interview transcript) should be included in the reference list.

Care should be taken that the information is appropriate to share and/or publish before citing works, and that it is represented or reproduced accurately. It may also be appropriate to consider the copyright ownership of material representing the cultural heritage of Indigenous Peoples.

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