Open Scholarship is the practice of applying principles of openness throughout the research and scholarly environment. It encompasses both Open Research and Open Educational Practices.
This site is a hub to support University of Melbourne students and academics in exploring the ways in which they can apply open practice to their teaching and research.
The University of Melbourne believes that through producing transparent and accessible scholarly knowledge, the potential for greater global impact and reuse can be realised.
What is Open Research?
Learn more about Open Research, the benefits, and what the funders are saying.
Open up your research
Learn about the different ways you can open up your research.
Principles for Open Access to Research Outputs at Melbourne
Principles for Open Access to Research Outputs at the University of Melbourne.
Frequently Asked Questions about the Open Access Principles and the available services to support open access.
Article Processing Charges (APC) are charges for making an article open access. In a fully open access journal these may be the only source of income for the journal. In hybrid journals, they are an additional income source to subscriptions.
Author’s Accepted Manuscript (AAM) is the version of the article accepted for publication including all changes made as a result of the peer review process. It has not gone through the journal's copy-editing process. The AAM is the version of the work that can most commonly be deposited in a repository.
Creative Commons are a set of licences that determine what a user or reader can do with an artefact. Copyright owners can apply the appropriate licence to their work to ensure it is as protected or as open as they wish.
Data custodians are responsible for the safe custody, transport, storage of the data and implementation of business rules.
Data Management Plans are a document that sets out the types of data that will be used and generated within a research project and describes how this will be stored, managed and shared. This is a living document and is likely to change throughout the research project. Some funders require a Data Management Plan for a grant application.
Data stewards have accountability and responsibility for data and processes that ensure effective control and use of data assets.
Embargoes are a restriction imposed by publishers on the public release of an AAM. The length of any given embargo is arbitrary, and embargo lengths differ according to funding sources, disciplines and publishers. Libraries spend time determining and implementing embargoes on AAMs deposited to repositories.
Green open access refers to the deposit of an Author’s Accepted Manuscript into a repository to make it accessible. In some cases, publishers impose an embargo on the public release of the document.
Grey/Gray literature consists of research outputs that sit outside the published literature. Working papers, discussion papers, technical papers, presentations and submissions are some examples of grey literature.
Gold open access is where an author publishes their article in an online open access journal. The article is immediately accessible upon publication, at no charge to the reader, and will be so in perpetuity. To publish in some of these journals, the publisher charges the author’s institution or funding body an Article Processing Charge. However, this is only one business model, and many open access journals will be free to publish in. A comprehensive list of journals is available through the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).
Hybrid open access refers to a publishing model in which subscription-based journals allow authors to make individual articles open access immediately through payment of an Article Processing Charge. Hybrid open access results in “double dipping” where the university pays twice, both for the subscription to the journal and the APC.
Institutional repositories are hosted within an institution to collect the research outputs of that institution. They often collect a broad range of digital items such as articles, books and chapters, reports, grey literature and creative outputs. Institutional repositories historically have been built on software platforms that were open source, such as DSpace or ePrints, but there are now commercial providers in the market, such as bepress (owned by Elsevier) and Pure (owned by Elsevier). The institutional repository of the University of Melbourne is Minerva Access.
Metadata is information about data. It describes the data and allows the data generator and other to understand the data at a later stage.
Minerva Access is the University of Melbourne's Institutional Repository. It aims to collect, preserve, and showcase the intellectual output of staff and students of the University of Melbourne for a global audience. Minerva Access is indexed by Google Scholar, and other search engines. It provides view and download statistics and a permanent URL for research outputs.
Minerva Elements is the University of Melbourne's publications collection and management system. It is the tool for the collection of and reporting of data on all research publications published by the University, and the method by which certain publications are made publicly available in Minerva Access, the publications repository.
Offsetting agreements are arrangements between publishers and institutions to mitigate the level of extra payments to publishers above subscription costs. They recognise that research-intensive institutions are spending considerable amounts on APCs in addition to subscription costs. Offsetting agreements are usually in place where there is central management of the payment of APCs. Generally Australian institutions do not have many offsetting agreements with publishers.
Open Access refers to the availability of Research Outputs via the internet, such that any user can find, freely access, read and download the output without charge. Any use or reuse is subject to full and proper attribution, and any licence terms stated to apply, such as the Creative Commons suite of licences. Where open licensing (e.g. Creative Commons) permits, users may also copy, distribute, print, search, link, crawl, mine and otherwise use and reuse the Research Outputs both manually and using automated tools. Open access can be achieved through different methods, see definitions of ‘Green Open Access’ and ‘Gold Open Access’.
Pre-print is a version of an article that is shared on a pre-print server such as arXiv, bioRxiv or the like.
Pre-print servers tend to be discipline specific. The longest established pre-print server is arXiv, which has been operating since 1991. Pre-print servers offer a way for authors to share their work and receive comments from other researchers. Generally, pre-print servers will allow the upload of subsequent versions of the work. A Submitted Manuscript may be preceded by multiple versions of a pre-print.
Published research refers to the following categories from the University of Melbourne “Research Outputs collection Classification Guidelines”: A1- Authored research books, A - Other book categories, B1- Research book chapters, B - Other book chapter categories, C1 - Journal articles, refereed, F1 – Conference publications, full written papers, refereed.
Repositories are databases used to share information about research articles and the articles themselves. They generally fall into two categories, institutional repositories and subject based repositories.
Research data is data that is generated in a research project. It is, in itself, a research output. (See definition of Research Data in the Management of Research Data and Records Policy (MPF1242)).
Research Data Management refers to the storage, access and preservation of data produced from a given investigation. Data management practices cover the entire lifecycle of the data, from planning the investigation to conducting it, and from backing up data as it is created and used to long term preservation of data deliverables after the research investigation has concluded. Specific activities and issues that fall within the category of data management include: File naming (the proper way to name computer files); data quality control and quality assurance; data access; data documentation (including levels of uncertainty); metadata creation and controlled vocabularies; data storage; data archiving and preservation; data sharing and reuse; data integrity; data security; data privacy; data rights; notebook protocols (lab or field). RELATED TERM: Data stewards.
Researchers includes all staff employed by the University of Melbourne in a research capacity, including Graduate researchers.
Research outputs are any work produced during the research project. They are diverse in nature and range from research articles, books, book chapters, research data, software, protocols, creative works and others.
Subject repositories are developed by members of a particular discipline. They tend to differ from a pre-print server in that they are a location for the deposit of work rather than providing an ability to comment on the work. Examples include arXiv and Pubmed Central.
Submitted Manuscript is the version of an article sent for peer review. In the past this was sometimes called a pre-print. However, the term pre-prints now has a specific different meaning.
Non Traditional Research Outputs (NTRO) in this context are broader than those NTROs defined by the ARC (https://dataportal.arc.gov.au/ERA/NationalReport/2018/pages/section1/non-traditional-research-outputs-ntros/) and include the following categories from the University of Melbourne “Research Outputs collection Classification Guidelines”: F - Other conference publications, C - Other journal contributions, D - Reference works, G – Reports, J - Original Creative works, Jii – Creative Recorded Works, K - Curated or produced Public Exhibitions and Events.
Version of Record is the final published version of the work. Unless there is a licence that permits sharing of the work, such as a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) licence, then generally this version cannot be shared.
Training and Events
There are a number of upcoming training and events that you are welcome to attend throughout 2021.
Keep up to date via the Researcher@Library programme.
The University of Melbourne Library has a number of recordings of past events and training sessions that you can also view at Researcher Connect.
Including Open in your Research
This session is an introduction to Open Research which takes researchers through the what, why, and how of making your research more open. It covers;
- The context, definitions, and types of publishing open access research;
- Why publishing open research outputs is important to individuals, institutions, and the general public;
- The types of open research you can publish, including journal articles, books, theses, data, software, code, and figures;
- How to choose OA publishers;
- Using Minerva Access to have an open research output; and
- Considerations for copyright, embargo period, and pre-print servers
Public Access and your Thesis
Get an overview of everything you need to know to prepare a PhD or Masters by Research thesis for the University's Open Access Repository. Learning outcomes include;
- An overview of University of Melbourne policy governing public access to graduate research theses;
- An overview of the systems used for examination and open access publishing: TES and Minerva Access;
- The benefits of making a thesis open access, along with a consideration of potential issues;
- Selecting and applying embargo periods to protect commercial IP, patent applications, legally/politically sensitive information, and your ability to publish;
- Managing 3rd-party copyright; and
- Issues to be aware of early if planning to submit a thesis-with-publication
For more information on the content covered in this website please contact the Scholarly Communications team, listed below. The team are available for individual consultations and group seminars and workshops on Open Scholarship, inclusive of Open Research and Open Educational Resources.
Manager, Scholarly Communications
+61 (03) 8344 1641