Lecture or presentation

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Personal communication may include (but is not limited to) email, fax, interview, conversations, direct or private messages via social media, telephone conversations and letters.

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

22. Presenter, “Title of lecture,” (lecture, Venue/Institution, Place, Date, Year).

Footnote example

First entry:

22. Bill Henson, “Bill Henson on Piranesi,” (lecture, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC, 27 February, 2014).

24. Nick Selenitsch, “The Northern Renaissance: Unintentional Revolutions,” (lecture, University of Melbourne, 17 May, 2020, virtual).

Second and subsequent entries:

26. Henson, lecture.

29. Selentisch, lecture.

Format for bibliography

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Presenter (Surname, First name). "Title of lecture." Venue/Institution, Place, date, year.

Bibliography entry example

Henson, Bill. "Bill Henson on Piranesi." Lecture, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC, 27 February, 2014.

Selentisch, Nick. "The Northern Renaissance: Unintentional Revolutions." Lecture, University of Melbourne, 17 May, 2020. Virtual.

Style notes for this reference style

  • See Manual 14.217.
  • The format of the presentation, venue and date are included in brackets in the footnote but not in the bibliography entry.
  • If accessed virtually or online, there is no need to indicate the platform (e.g. Zoom) however if relevant to the discussion mention it in the body of your work.
  • If you watched or listened to the presentation online, you can also treat it as you would an online resource (see video or audio for examples).
  • If the information is accessed or available online, include the URL as the final part of the citation.
  • If the paper is included in published proceedings it may be treated like a chapter in a book.

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