DVD, video, film

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

31. Title of Production, directed by Director/s (Year of release; Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Medium/URL.

Footnote example

First entry:

22. Fargo, directed by Joel and Ethan Cohen (1996; Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2000), DVD.


31. Whitney: Can I Be Me, directed by Nick Broomfield and Rudi Dolezal (Lafayette Films, 2017), https://www.netflix.com/title/80176176.

OR for specific scenes

39. "Crop Duster Attack," North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.

Second and subsequent entries:

53. Fargo.


55. Whitney.

OR for specific scenes

60. North by Northwest, "Mount Rushmore".

Format for bibliography

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Bibliography entries may be listed under either the production title or the name of the director (see Turabian

Title of Production. Directed by Director/s. Year of release; Place of publication: Publisher, year. Medium/URL.


Director (Surname, First name), dir. Title of Production. Place of publication: Publisher, year. Medium/URL.

Bibliography entry examples

Fargo. Directed by Joel and Ethan Coen. 1996; Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2000. DVD.


Broomfield, Nick and Rudi Dolezal, dir. Whitney: Can I Be Me. Lafayette Films, 2017. https://www.netflix.com/title/80176176.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 14.261 and 14.265. See also Turabian
  • Omit the year of release if it is the same as the year of publication. See Manual 14.265.
  • The order of the citation elements may depend on the nature of the resource and on what the focus of the citation is (i.e. you may cite the director's name first if the direction of the work is your primary focus).
  • Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included (i.e. additional writers, actors, producers). See above links for examples.
  • Accompanying material (like a director's commentary) can either be woven into the text (see Turabian or cited by author and title (see Manual 14.265).
  • You may need to consult other resources (i.e a library catalogue or IMDb) for some citation elements.
  • You can also refer to a specific scene in a film. Include the scene title or chapter number in quotation marks at the beginning of the citation (i.e. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest…).
  • For recordings accessed online, if there is no date of production or broadcast provided, you should include an access date prior to the URL (Manual 14.12).

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