Personal communications (interviews, letters, emails)

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used. (eg. Number of authors and source descriptions)

Personal communication may include (but is not limited to) email, fax, interview, conversations, lectures, speeches, telephone conversations and letters.

Format for in text citation

Name of the person interviewed or source of communication, year, communication type, day, month. Additional information may include details of the organisation that the person represents.

Example - in text citation

In an email dated 6 May 2011, Ms C Jones wrote “the crime was committed during daylight hours.”


It was confirmed recently that the crime was committed during daylight hours (C Jones 2011, pers. comm., 6 May).

Style notes for this reference type

  • Personal communication is not included in the bibliography – rather, the details are provided as an in-text citation. An exception to this is if the assignment is based mainly on personal communication.
  • The initials of the person precede the family name in citations of personal communication.
  • The Library recommends you check with your lecturer to ensure they allow you to use these types of sources in your assignments
  • If there is any additional contextual information that is significant to this communication, please include it in the citation.

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