Sound recording: Streamed online

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used. (eg. Number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

... on the album Kind of Blue (Davis 1959).

...Williams' use of the Eb clarinet in the soundtrack to Star Wars (2004).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Composer/Performer. Year. “Track Title”. Track number on Title of Recording. Label & Publisher number, streaming service. URL (if available).

Reference list example

Davis, Miles. 1959. “So What”. Track 1 on Kind of Blue. Columbia CL 1355, Spotify.

Williams, John. Star Wars, Episode IV, "A New Hope" (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack). 2004. London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by John Williams. Sony Classical 8279692795021, Naxos Music Library.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 15.57 and Turabian
  • Italicise the official title of the album, but individual track titles should be included in quotation marks (Manual 8.197).
  • If the performer or conductor (or similar) is more relevant than the composer, they may be listed first.
  • Include any information about the work that is relevant, including performers, conductors, performance dates, medium and publisher details.
  • Include the name of the streaming service as part of the citation. If a separate URL can be determined from the source, include that at the end.
  • For the date, include the date of the recording, the copyright date or published date included with the recording. If a date cannot be found consult a library catalogue or other resource; citations without a date are generally unacceptable. If no date can be found, use “n.d.” (for no date).
  • Sound recordings should be grouped under an appropriate subheading in the bibliography (see Chicago Manual, chapter 14.263 and 14.63).
  • For digital reissues, include the date of the original recording and the reissue date as well. See Manual 15.57.

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