Four or more authors

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

In a major study (Miller et al. 2000)…


In a major study (Miller et al. 2000, 35-36)...

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Author 1 Surname, First name, Author 2 First name Surname, Author 3 First name Surname, [and] Author 4 First name Surname. Year of publication. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference list example

Miller, Peter, Marion Smith, Julie Roberts, Keith Howard, and Lisa Curtis. 2000. Mobile Phone Use in Teenagers. Melbourne: Collins.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 15.9
  • In-text citations with four or more authors list the first author's surname followed by et al. e.g. (Sutherland et al. 2017).
  • When citing a particular passage, include the page number/s in the in-text citation. Do not use 'p' or 'pp' before the page numbers. Place a comma between the year and page number/s.
  • Where there are four to ten authors, list them all in the reference list.
  • Where there are more than ten authors, list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al. (see Manual 14.76).
  • In the reference list, invert the name of the first author only.
  • Editor's names should be followed with the abbreviation ed. (or eds.). Use the same format where there is a translator or compiler instead of an editor.
  • Specify the edition if it is not the first edition.
  • No page numbers are given for books. Give beginning and ending page numbers for book chapters.
  • For online books include the DOI (or URL) as the last part of the citations and refer to section headings in lieu of page numbers.
  • Published musical scores are treated in the same way as books.

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