You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

13. Author(s), “Title of Article,” Title of Publication, date, page number(s), URL.

Footnote example

First entry:

13. Sarah Kirkup, "Kate Whitley: Igniting Dance with Her Music," Gramophone, October 19, 2018,

Second and subsequent entries:

23. Kirkup, "Kate Whitley."

Format for bibliography

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Author (surname, given name). "Title of article." Title of Publication, date. URL.

Bibliography entry example

Kirkup, Sarah. "Kate Whitley: Igniting Dance with Her Music." Gramophone, October 19, 2018.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 14.188 and 14.189.
  • For magazines, the procedure is generally the same as for journals. The volume and issue or other information is replaced by the date.
  • A specific page number (where available) should be included in the footnote, but page numbers are generally omitted from the bibliography (Manual 14.188). Do not use ‘p’ or ‘pp’ before the page numbers.
  • For articles consulted online, the preference is to include a DOI or stable URL. Note that DOI is lowercased and followed by a colon (with no space after) in source citations.
  • Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources (see Chicago Manual of Style, Ch.14.12).
  • If an access date is required (by publisher or discipline) they should immediately precede the URL, separated from the surrounding citation by commas in a note and periods in a bibliography entry.
  • If no suitable URL is available, include the name of the database (Manual 14.189).
  • If consulting online, specific page numbers may not be available so may be omitted from your citation (Manual 14.189).
  • Articles accessed using a specific app should cite the name of application or device required (i.e. iPhone app) (Manual 14.189).
  • For articles consulted in print, omit the URL or database name from your citation.
  • Date of publication to be recorded as month, day, year.

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