Screenshot from an artwork/ film/ video

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

These examples show you how to reference images that you include in your work. They are based on the Chicago Manual, sections 3.22, 3.27, 3.30 , 3.32 and 3.38. Please consult your lecturer or supervisor for specific requirements.

Images must have a caption, and a full citation in a list of figures. Give each image a figure number. You may abbreviate figure as fig. See Manual 3.23.

Format for captions

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Figure number. "Title/ Description of Screenshot," Director/Artist, Title of work, year.

You may include information about the medium, dimensions and so forth. See Manual 3.22 and 3.27

Caption example

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Fig. 6. "Facing exterior, facing camera," Bruce Naumann, Dance or Walk on the Perimeter of a Square, 1967-68.

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Fig. 10. "Interrogation scene," Kathryn Bigelow, Zero Dark Thirty, 2013.

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Fig. 12. "Christmas light ouija board scene," Shawn Levy, Stranger Things, "Holly, Jolly," 2016.

Format for list of figures

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Figure number. Artist/ Director (surname, given name). Title of work. Year. Medium, duration of work. Repository / Gallery / Museum, City. Date (of publication, modification or access). URL.


Figure number. Title of Production, directed by Director/s (Year of release; Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Medium/URL.


Figure number. Title, season, episode, "Title of episode," directed by Director, access date, streaming service.

List of figures examples

Fig. 6. Naumann, Bruce. Dance or Walk on the Perimeter of a Square. 1967-68. 16 mm black and white film, 8: 24 min. Electronic Arts Intermix, New York. Accessed February 6, 2020.


Fig. 10. Zero Dark Thirty, directed by Kathryn Bigelow (2012; Newtown, N.S.W.: Icon Film Distribution, 2013), DVD.


Fig. 12. Stranger Things, season 1, episode 3, "Holly, Jolly," directed by Shawn Levy, accessed December 15, 2019,

Style notes for this reference type

  • The minimum information to include in a caption for a screenshot is the title of the scene,  director/artist, title of work, year.
  • Titles or descriptions of screenshots should be placed within quotation marks, with the title of the larger work italicised and in headline style. See Manual 3:22
  • Include a list of figures, using  bibliography format.
  • Bibliography examples are based on Manual 14.26114.265 and Manual 14.235. See also Turabian

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