Image/ photograph of a performance/ dance

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

These examples show you how to reference images that you include in your work. They are based on the Chicago Manual, sections 3.22, 3.273.30, 3.32 and 3.38. Please consult your lecturer or supervisor for specific requirements.

Images must have a caption, and a full citation in a list of figures. Give each image a figure number. You may abbreviate figure as fig. See Manual 3.23.

Format for captions

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Figure number. Director/Choreographer, Title of work, year. Photographer: Name of Photographer.

Caption examples

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Fig. 5. Marina Abramović, The Artist is Present, 2010.


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Fig. 7. Anouk van Dijk, Rule of Thirds, 2016. Photographer: Pippa Samaya.


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Fig. 9. Sarah Goodes, Golden Shield, 2019. Photographer: Jeff Busby.

Format for list of figures

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Figure number. Title of Work. [By] Author of Script (if relevant). [Directed/ Choreographed by] Director(s)/Choreographer(s). Venue, Place of Performance, Year of Performance.

List of figures examples

Fig. 5. The Artist is Present. Performed by Marina Abramović. Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2010.


Fig. 7. Rule of Thirds. Choreographed by Anouk van Dijk. Chunky Move Studios, Melbourne, 2016.


Fig. 9. Golden Shield. By Anchuli Felicia King. Directed by Sarah Goodes. Melbourne Theatre Company, Melbourne, 2019.

Style notes for this reference type

  • The minimum information to include in a caption for a screenshot is the director/choreographer, title of work, year.
  • If referencing the lighting designer, costume designer, set designer or sound designer or performers, describe their contribution in body of the text. If it is a one-person performance, use the performer in place of the director/choreographer.
  • If appropriate include descriptive information about the scene or section in the photograph before the director/choreographer.
  • Descriptions of scene or section should be placed within quotation marks, with the title of the larger work italicised and in headline style. See Manual 3:22.
  • Include a list of figures, using bibliography format.
  • Bibliography examples are based on Manual 14.26114.265 and Manual 14.235. See also Turabian
  • For an online live performance use format from Screenshot from an artwork/film/video.

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