PhD and Master's theses
You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)
Format for in text citation
In text citation example
Format for reference list
Elements, punctuation & capitalisation
For an unpublished thesis (thesis in print form):
For a thesis available through a database service, such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, include the name of the database and the accession or order number in the reference:
For a thesis from an institutional database:
For a thesis available on the web:
When citing the abstract for a thesis, as from Dissertation Abstracts International:
Reference list example
Style notes for this reference type
- APA 7 Publication Manual, pp.333-334.
- Italicise the title of the thesis, unless citing only the abstract.
- Capitalisation: Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns.
- If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the cited page number/s in the in text citation after the year.
- Print format: Unpublished theses retrieved from the issuing university have the name of the issuing university in the Source part of the reference.
- A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database, institutional repository, or archive. Place in square brackets after the title both the type of thesis and the institution awarding the thesis.
Explore resources to help with reference management and enable you to effectively integrate and cite sources into your writing and assessment tasks.
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