Web pages with no author

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

... centrepiece of the campus (Columbia University n.d.) is…


…represented by ideas which have been evolving (“Feminisms: Plural and Evolving” 2018).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Title/ owner of website. Year of publication or revision. "Title/description of the page." Title/description of the Website. Date (of publication, modification or access). URL.


“Title/description of the page.” Year of publication or revision. Title/description of the Website. Date (of publication, modification or access). URL.

Reference list example

Columbia University. n.d. "History."  Columbia University. Accessed April 16, 2018. https://www.columbia.edu/content/history.


“Feminisms: Plural and Evolving.” 2018. Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. January 2018. http://content.acca.melbourne/uploads/2018/02/Feminisms-3.pdf.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 15.50, 15.34 and Turabian 19.5.1.
  • A web page is any one of the "pages", or sub-documents, that make up a website.
  • Where there is no author, list the source under the owner of the site or its title.
  • In-text citations and reference list entries should correlate so that references can be easily found. For instance, resources listed under the title should have a corresponding in-text citation including the title (see Manual 15.21).
  • Titles of specific pages should be in quotation marks.
  • Include a publication date (or date of modification/revision). If no such date can be found, include an access date and use n.d. in place of a year of publication in both in-text citations and the reference list (see Manual 15.50 for examples).
  • Repeat the year of publication or modification with the month and day to avoid confusion.
  • Frequently updated resources (such as wikis) can include a time stamp if one is provided by the resource.
  • Precede date of modification or access with 'last modified' or 'accessed' respectively.
  • If a website refers to themselves by their domain name (which is case sensitive), shorten and capitalise it in a logical way (e.g., www.google.com becomes Google).
  • Citations of website content are often only included in the text, however if they form a critical part of your research or are frequently cited, they may be included in your bibliography. Check with your lecturer if you are unsure.

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