Live performance - music
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Live performance may include (but is not limited to) music, theatre, dance, music theatre or spoken word performances. This entry is for music performances only. For other live performances, refer to live performance - dance or theatre.
Format for in-text citation
In-text citation example
(Mustonen, Olli, Melbourne Symphony Orchestra, Piano Concerto no. 5 (Emperor) by Ludwig van Beethoven, Melbourne Recital Centre, Melbourne, April 21, 2012.)
In a performance of Beethoven’s Emperor Piano Concerto (no. 5) at the Melbourne Recital Centre on April 21, 2012 ….
… the performance of Beethoven’s Emperor Concerto by Olli Mustonen (Melbourne Recital Centre, April 21, 2012).
Format for reference list
Elements, punctuation & capitalisation
Citations of live performances should generally be weaved into the text and may therefore be omitted from the reference list. However they should be included if they form a critical part of your research, or if they are frequently cited. Check with your lecturer if you are unsure.
This example is provided for those who do need to include an entry in a reference list. Note that recordings of live performances should be treated as a recording.
Performers (Surname, Given). Year. Title of Work (Descriptive Title if relevant) by Composer. Venue, Place of Performance, Date of Performance.
Reference list example
Mustonen, Olli, Melbourne Symphony Orchestra. 2012. Piano Concerto no. 5 (Emperor) by Ludwig van Beethoven. Melbourne Recital Centre, Melbourne, April 21, 2012.
Style notes for this reference type
- See Manual 14.266 and Turabian 19.10.2.
- As live performances are ephemeral and cannot be consulted (unlike recordings), they generally do not require a reference list entry. However, they should be included if they form a critical part of your research, or if they are frequently cited. Check with your lecturer if you are unsure.
- Cite recordings of live performances as per the recorded medium (i.e. DVD, online video, sound recording) (see Manual 14.266 and Turabian 19.10.2)
- Many musical works are known by their generic names, such as 'Symphony no. 1' or 'Sonata in A major', while some have descriptive or popular names (such as 'Eroica' or Danse Macabre). See Manual 8.194 and 8.195 for guidance on whether titles should be italicised, in quotation marks or set in roman type.
- If the performance of an individual is important to your research, list that person's name before the title of the work.
- There may be multiple performers, including soloist, ensemble and conductor. Include all information relevant to the resource.
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