No author

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

…the significance of these finds has been questioned in the media (New York Times 2002).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Title of newspaper. Year of publication. "Title of article." Month, day and year of publication. DOI/URL/Database name.

Reference list example

New York Times. 2002. “Oldest Bacteria Fossils? Or Are They Merely Tiny Rock Flaws?” March 12, 2002.

Style notes for this reference type

  • If a newspaper article is unsigned, the title of the newspaper stands in place of the author, see Manual 15.49
  • Article titles are included in quotation marks.
  • Newspaper titles are italicised.
  • In the reference list, invert the name of the first author only.
  • Omit the initial The for English language newspaper titles.
  • If the title does not include the city name, add it to the title in brackets (unless it is a well known publication like Wall Street Journal.)
  • If there is no article title, give the article type (not in quotation marks). For example: Obituary, Editorial.
  • In circumstances where news stories are unfolding over time, it may be appropriate to include a time-stamp where one is included with the article. List the time as posted, with the timezone as appropriate (i.e. 3:55 pm EST). See Manual 14.191.
  • You may include the specific edition if relevant. e.g. final edition; afternoon edition.
  • If the paper is published in several sections, the section number or name may be given.
  • Use a section title instead of article title if appropriate, but do not put in quotation marks. e.g. Editorial. Obituary for John Smith.
  • Page numbers are not required for reference lists or in-text citations.
  • To reference an article consulted online, include the URL. For articles consulted in print, omit the DOI or URL.

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