Online music score

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used. (eg. Number of authors and source descriptions)

Musical scores are not specifically discussed in the manual in relation to author-date citations, however it does mention that they should generally be treated as books. Our librarians suggest the following, however we advise that you check with your subject guideline or tutor for recommended format.

For more information refer to Chicago Manual of Style (14.255) or Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations - eighth edition (

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

... the treatment of the melody (Mussorgsky 1939) …

Frasch (2011) prepares us for the climax of her work by…

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Composer (Surname, First name). Year. Title of Work. Edited by Editor. Place of publication: Publisher. URL/DOI/Database name.

Reference list example

Mussorgsky, Modest. 1939. "Reverie" in Complete Collected Works. Edited by Pavel Lamm. Moscow: Muzgiz.


Frasch, Heather. 2011. Collage. Paris: BabelScores. BabelScores Contemporary Music Online.

Style notes for this reference type

  • Online music scores are treated in the same way as electronic books. The URL/DOI should be the last part of the full citation. See Manual 14.15914.160 and 14.161.
  • Many musical works are known by their generic names, such as 'Symphony no. 1' or 'Sonata in A major', while some have descriptive or popular names (such as 'Eroica' or Danse Macabre). See Manual 8.1948.195 and Turabian 22.3.2 for guidance on whether titles should be italicised, in quotation marks or neither.
  • Sometimes a suitable URL is not available, or is only for subscribers of the database. In these cases it is appropriate to just include the database name (i.e. BabelScores) (Manual 14.161).
  • Include an editor's name wherever possible. This helps identify particular versions of a work.
  • Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. It is not appropriate to just include the URL.
  • DOI stands for 'digital object identifier' and provides a permanent and stable link to a resource. Use this in place of a URL where it exists.
  • If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed.

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