Online video

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

Adichie (2009) commented on …

OR shown in the video “Ai Weiwei – Sunflower Seeds” (2010).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

With author

Author name (Surname, First name). Year. "Title of Video." Additional publication information, date posted. Description of item, duration. URL.

Without author

"Title of video." Year. Additional publication information, date posted. Description of item, duration. URL.

Reference list example

With author

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi. 2009. "The Danger of a Single Story." Filmed at TEDGlobal 2009, July 2009. TED video, 18:43.

Without author

"Ai Weiwei - Sunflower Seeds." 2010. Tate, October 14, 2010. Video, 14:41.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 15.57, 14.267 and Turabian
  • If no date can be determined from the source, include an access date.
  • Where actual names are used, invert the names of the first named person only in bibliography.
  • Different sources will provide more or less information about the item. Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included, for example the name of a YouTube channel or where and when it was recorded.
  • If the material is a recording of a performance, or is a digitised version of pre-existing material, you should also include information about the original source. The order of these entries may depend on the information available.
  • Use a permanent URL wherever available.
  • You may give a time-stamp of the appropriate excerpt in parentheses, e.g. (Adichie 2009, 1:45).
  • Enter the creator's name as it appears. If a real name can be determined, you can include it in brackets.

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