Secondary source

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

According to Lakatos (cited in Gholson & Barker 1985, p. 755), scientists justifiably continue…


…the process continued (Lakatos cited in Gholson & Barker 1985, p. 755).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Authors Year of publication, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Reference list example

Gholson, B & Barker, P 1985, 'Kuhn, Lakatos, and Laudan: applications in the history of physics and psychology', American Psychologist, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 755-69.

Optional - details of primary source (book)

Lakatos, I 1963, Proofs and refutations, Nelson, London.

Style notes for this reference type

  • Give the secondary source in the reference list. In the text refer to the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Lakatos' work is cited in an article by Gholson and Barker use the phrase 'cited in' inside brackets in the text (e.g. According to Lakatos (cited in Gholson & Barker 1985), scientists justifiably continue…). Give the secondary source in the reference list. (Optionally the details of the primary source can also be included in the reference list if considered useful to the reader).
  • Optionally the details of the primary source can also be included in the reference list (if considered useful to the reader).
  • Italicise the name of the journal/publication. Use maximal capitalisation - capitalise the first and all major words of the journal name. Give the journal name in full e.g. Journal of Immunology not J Immunol
  • Article titles are contained within single quotation marks and are not italicised. Use minimal capitalisation - capitalise only the first word of the article title and any proper nouns. Include both article title and subtitle regardless of length e.g. 'Still moving: between cinema and photography'.
  • If the journal is part of a series include the series title in the citation. Series titles are not italicised and are placed after the journal name. Use minimal capitalisation.
  • There is no comma or full-stop between the author and year of publication. Commas are used to separate all other elements. The reference entry finishes with a full-stop.
  • The volume number, issue details and inclusive page numbers follow the journal title.
  • If a journal does not use volume numbers, include the month, season or other designation after the title.
  • The reference list entry for an article in a foreign language can include a translation, in brackets, following the article title e.g. Langhi, C & Cariou, B 2010 'Metabolisme du cholesterol et fonction beta-cellulaire', (Cholesterol metabolism and beta-cell function)

Explore resources to help with reference management and enable you to effectively integrate and cite sources into your writing and assessment tasks .

View Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Access all referencing FAQs Access further help