Four or more authors

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

Fukao et al. (1999) in their studies…


…were revealed (Fukao et al. 1999).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Authors (Year of publication), 'Title of article', Name of Publication, Volume(Issue):Page numbers.

Reference list example

Fukao S, McClure JP, Ito A, Sato T, Kimura I and Tsuda T (1999), '1st VHF radar observation of midlatitude F-region field-aligned irregularities', Geophysical Research Letters,15(3):768-770.

Style notes for this reference type

  • When a journal article has four or more authors the in-text citation shows only the name of the first listed author followed by 'et al.'
  • All the authors' names must be listed in the reference in the order they appear on the article.
  • Italicise the name of the journal/publication. Use maximal capitalisation - capitalise the first and all major words of the journal name. Give the journal name in full e.g. Journal of Immunology not J Immunol
  • Article titles are contained within single quotation marks and are not italicised. Use minimal capitalisation - capitalise only the first word of the article title and any proper nouns. Include both article title and subtitle regardless of length e.g. 'Still moving: between cinema and photography'.
  • If the journal is part of a series include the series title in the citation. Series titles are not italicised and are placed after the journal name. Use minimal capitalisation.
  • There is no comma or full-stop between the authors' names and year of publication. Commas are used to separate all other elements. The reference entry finishes with a full-stop.
  • The volume number, issue details and inclusive page numbers follow the journal title.
  • If a journal does not use volume numbers, include the month, season or other designation after the title.
  • The reference list entry for an article in a foreign language can include a translation, in brackets, following the article title e.g. Langhi, C and Cariou, B (2010), 'Metabolisme du cholesterol et fonction beta-cellulaire' (Cholesterol metabolism and beta-cell function).

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