Sound recording

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Sound recordings are not discussed in the manual used in the compilation of the Harvard examples here.

Our librarians suggest the following, however we advise that you check with your subject guideline or Tutor for recommended format.

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

…as played in Heifetz’s Bach: Sonatas and Partitas (1994).


…(Heifetz, 1994).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Artist/Originator of recording (Year of distribution), Title of recording, Material type, Distribution company, Place of distribution.

Reference list example

Heifetz J (1994), Bach: Sonatas and Partitas, CD, RCA Victor Gold Seal, US.

Style notes for this reference type

  • Further information/credits can follow the citation.
  • Titles are italicised. Minimal capitalisation is recommended. Capitalise only the first word of the title and any proper nouns.
  • There is no comma or full stop between the title and date of recording. Commas are used to separate all other elements. The reference entry finishes with a full-stop.

Explore resources to help with reference management and enable you to effectively integrate and cite sources into your writing and assessment tasks .

View Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Access all referencing FAQs Access further help