Four or more authors

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Format for in-text citation

In-text citation example

Montinari et al. (2018) found that…


…environmental considerations (Montinari et al. 2018, 99).

Format for reference list

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Author 1 Surname, First name, Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Journal Title vol, no. ?: page numbers. DOI/URL/Database name.

Reference list example

Montinari, Maria Rosa, Simona Giardina, Pierluca Minelli, and Sergio Minelli. 2018. "History of Music Therapy and its Contemporary Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases." Southern Medical Journal 111, no. 2: 98-102. doi: 10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000765.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 15.9
  • In-text citations with four or more authors list the first author's surname followed by et al. e.g. (Sutherland et al. 2017).
  • In-text, cite specific pages (unless you are referring to the whole article). Do not use 'p' or 'pp' before the page numbers.
  • Where there are four to ten authors, list them all in the reference list.
  • Where there are more than ten authors, list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al. (see Manual 14.76).
  • Reference list entries include the volume and issue numbers and the publication date. If a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season appears with the year, the issue number may be omitted.
  • Article titles are given in quotation marks. Include both article title and subtitle, regardless of length.
  • Journal titles are italicised.
  • The page range is included in the reference list.
  • Additional information beyond volume and issue (for instance a season or month) may be included in parentheses after the issue number.
  • For articles consulted online, the preference is to include a DOI or stable URL. Sometimes a suitable URL will not be available, or will be restricted to subscribers to the database. In these cases, it is appropriate to list the name of the database used (Manual 14.175). Note that DOI is lowercased and followed by a colon (with not space after) in source citations.
  • For articles consulted in print, omit the DOI, URL or database name from your citation.
  • Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources (Manual 14.12). If an access date is required (by publisher or discipline), they should immediately precede the URL, separated from the surrounding citation by commas in a note and periods in a reference list entry.

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