Four or more authors

You may need to consult more than one section to accurately represent the source used (eg. number of authors and source descriptions)

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

13. Author 1 et al., “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume number, issue number (year): page number(s), DOI/URL/Database name.

Footnote  example

First entry:

13. Maria Rosa Montinari et al., "History of Music Therapy and Its Contemporary Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases," Southern Medical Journal 111, no. 2 (2018): 101, doi: 10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000765.

23. Montinari et al., "History of Music Therapy," 100.

Format for bibliography

Elements, punctuation & capitalisation

Author 1 (surname, given name), Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, issue number (year): page number(s). DOI/URL/Database name.

Bibliography entry example

Montinari, Maria Rosa, Simona Giardina, Pierluca Minelli, and Sergio Minelli. "History of Music Therapy and Its Contemporary Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases." Southern Medical Journal 111, no. 2 (2018): 98-102. doi: 10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000765.

Style notes for this reference type

  • See Manual 14.168 - 14.187. Information on articles consulted online at 14.175.
  • For articles consulted online, the preference is to include a DOI or stable URL. Sometimes a suitable URL will not be available, or will be restricted to subscribers to the database. In these cases, it is appropriate to list the name of the database used (Manual 14.175).
  • For articles consulted in print, omit the DOI, URL or database name from your citation.
  • For online articles that have been assigned a DOI, note that DOI is lowercased and followed by a colon (with no space after) in source citations.
  • Access dates are not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources (see Chicago Manual of Style, Ch.14.12).
  • If an access date is required (by publisher or discipline) they should immediately precede the URL, separated from the surrounding citation by commas in a note and periods in a bibliography entry.
  • In the bibliography (but not the footnotes), invert the name of the first author only (i.e. surname, given name).
  • The entry in the bibliography should include the names of all authors.
  • In footnotes, give the name only of the first author, followed by ‘et al.’ (Latin for ‘and others’) (see Manual 14.76).
  • Include both article title and subtitle, regardless of length.
  • Italicise the name of the journal.
  • Use the shortened form for second and subsequent footnotes.
  • In the bibliography, give the start and end pages of the article.
  • In footnotes, cite specific pages (unless you are referring to the whole article).
  • Do not use ‘p’ or ‘pp’ before the page numbers.
  • If a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season appears with the year, the issue number may be omitted.

Explore resources to help with reference management and enable you to effectively integrate and cite sources into your writing and assessment tasks.

View Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Access all referencing FAQs Access further help