Non-English sources

  1. Cite the version of the work you used, if it is a non-English version.
  2. If you use a non-English work, cite the author, date, title and source of the work in the original language. You must include an English translation of the title in square brackets, directly after the title and before the full stop. Refer to the examples.
  3. If you are only using a section of a source, e.g. a chapter in an edited book, you only need to translate the chapter title, not the book title as well. The translation does not have to be literal. The purpose is to give the reader a sense of what the work is about.
  4. Note: if the work uses a non-Latin alphabet (e.g, Arabic, Farsi, Hindi, Japanese, Mandarin, Russian) an extra step is required. Non-Latin alphabets are not used in the reference list in APA Style, so the title needs to be transliterated (that is, converted to the alphabet you are using to write a paper). This is followed by the English translation, in square brackets. For in text citations, the family or organisation name(s) is used as usual, but must be provided in Latin alphabet. Refer to the examples.
  5. If the original source citation copied from a database includes the author names in non-Latin alphabet, the author names should be transliterated first. This is needed so your reference can then be inserted alphabetically into the reference list.

Pinyin is the official romanization system for Standard Mandarin Chinese. One site that convert from Chinese characters to Pinyin is the Chinese-Pinyin Converter.

For example:

Japanese language examples after transliteration

Amano, N., & Kondo, H. (2000). Nihongo no goi tokusei [Lexical characteristics of Japanese language] (Vol. 7). Sansei-do.


Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (1997, June 12). Peru jiken chosa iinkai no hokoku ni tsuite no Ikeda Gaimu Daijin no kishakaiken [Press interview with Foreign Minister Ikeda on the report of the investigation committee on the Peru Incident]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved from index.html

Original Chinese-language reference

何應欽, 張菀玲, 洪繼開, & 楊喬凱. (2020). 高績效理財專員之個人商業模式與 職能基礎的探討-以ks 銀行為研究對象. Commerce & Management Quarterly, 21(2), 111–145.

Chinese-language reference after transliteration

He, Y., Zhang, Y., & Yang, Q. (2020). Gāo jì xiào lǐ cái zhuān yuán zhī gè rén shāng yè mó shì yǔ zhí néng jī chǔ de tàn tǎo yǐ yín háng wèi yán jiū duì xiàng [Discussion on the personal business model and functional basis of high-performing financial professionals - KS bank as the research object]. Commerce & Management Quarterly, 21(2),111-145.