The Australiana Collections comprise books and some serials, newspapers and pamphlets published in Australia or on Australian subjects or by an Australian author.
The largest of the Australiana collections - the AX collection - originated from books that were formerly on the Library's open shelves. The three other collections of Australiana general works which complement the AX collection - the McLaren Collection, Meanjin Books and the Grimwade Collection - originated from the private libraries of three donors.
Also included amongst the Australiana collections are any works that have emanated from the University of Melbourne: the Thesis Collection, the University Collection and the Melbourne University Press collection, and the several collections named after the individual or the organisation who has donated them.
- AX Collection of Australiana
- Communist Party of Australia Collection
- Sophie Ducker Botany Collection
- Joan Goodwin Collection of Political Ephemera
- Sir Russell and Lady Grimwade Collection
- The Hawthorn Press
- Joyce Thorpe Nicholson Australian Women Collection
- Lonely Planet Collection
- Ian McLaren Collection
- Melbourne University Press Collection
- Robert Menzies collection
- Romance Fiction Collection
- Douglas Taylor Collection of Pulp and Popular Fiction
- Thesis Collection
- University Collection
- Arthur Upfield Collection
- John Willis Gay and Lesbian Fiction Collection